Hello my name is Natalya Mann, I�m a majorin public health and in this presentation I will be discussing cervical cancer.
What is cervical cancer? It first begins inthe cervix, when the cells become pre-cancerous from various risk factors, usually HPV.
Thoughthose who get HPV do not necessarily always get cervical cancer.
Though it can take severalyears for cervical cancer to develop, it can also take less than a year.
On the other hand,the United States does not have as many cases of cervical cancer than it once did.
George Papanicolaou create the first effectivescreenings for cervical cancer, though it is rarely discussed.
The pap smear was createdin the 1940s and from then a program was made for cervical screening.
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-relateddeath in women and it is the third most common cancer in women worldwide.
After the age of35, incidence and mortality increase over time.
Though in North Carolina, the incidencerates have decreased since 1975.
These are two graphs showing the steady lineof white women who have cervical cancer, you can see its slightly increasing, and womenof color- it�s now dropping.
The second is of a pie graph showing ages and the percentageof cases per age group, the most affected group is the 45 through 64 age group.
The risk factors for cervical cancer includeHPV, sexual activity, other STDs, giving birth at a young age, and smoking.
The process ofHPV causing cervical cancer is usually a long one.
If the HPV infection is grade 2 or 3,it sometimes can cause pre-cancerous lesions in the cervical lining.
Though women who getHPV infections often are also at risk for cervical cancer.
Pap smears are done and if abnormal cells are found colposcopies and biopsies are doneto see if the patient has cervical cancer.
Depending on what stage the patient is in,MRIs may be done to see if the cancer has spread to the spine or throughout the body.
There are five stages in cervical cancer,0 through 4.
Depending on what stage the patient is on requires different procedures.
Chemotherapy,radiation, and surgery is usually recommended to treat it, though sometimes hysterectomiesmay be done if the cancer is at a later stage.
Screenings, pap smears, and vaccinations aremost important for prevention.
Screenings should be done between 21 and 65 years ofage, and pap smears are recommended every three years.
Sexual education is also necessaryto ensure that children and adults know how to prevent STDs.
Vaccinations for HPV is alsoimportant in children to prevent it, though not all countries have access to this.
There are many non-profits that help womenwith things like screenings, sexual education, vaccinations, and support.
Some of these includeThe NCCC, The Cancer Support Center, and The Foundation for Women�s Cancer.
Healthy People 2020 plan to reduce the amount of cases of cervical cancer, though the numberis already relatively low in the U.
They plan to do this by continuing sexual educationand safety.
Women who are in need of screenings and children who need vaccinations will alsoreceive them through Healthy People 2020.
These are my sources, thank you for listening.